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Developmental Factors in Late Adulthood

 

Week 11 Discussion 1 Response

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. One of the references must come from Broderick and Blewitt (2015). I need this completed today at 7pm. Respond to at least three of your colleagues using one or more of the following approaches:

· Select a colleague who was assigned a different client than you. Suggest at least one counseling goal or strategy he or she might use to support the health and resilience of the older adult.

· Select a colleague who was assigned the same client as you. Contrast your conceptualizations of the client’s developmental factors and state of well-being.

1. (S. Mor)

The Reeves Family has added a new addition to their household, which consists of Lucas the father of John, Justin, and Emme. Lucas has moved his father Jacob (Grandpa Jake) in after the death of his mother. The last several years have gone smoothly with the Reeves Family, and with the added addition to their household Lucas recommended Grandpa Jake come see me. Lucas rightfully so had his father move in after his mother’s death, because he did not want him to be alone. Grandpa Jake is not in favor of seeing a counselor and has no problem verbally expressing his disdain for the counseling field. One of Lucas’s concerns for his father is his memory tends to come and go at different times. He has actually called the table in my office a chair and has renamed his Granddaughter Emme to Ella. Another concern in the house is privacy and space. Grandpa Jake has accused his Grandson John of stealing a book from his room, which has caused tension between Lucas and his father. Grandpa Jake is transitioning from being married for a very long time, losing his wife, moving out of their home, and now living with his son and grandchildren. He is 68 years old and it is a lot to process and accept every day (Laureate Education, n.d.).

Developmental Factors in Late Adulthood

One of life’s goals will be to grow old and reach senior citizen status, proudly receiving discounts everywhere we go because our age paid the price for it. Personally I enjoy having conversations with the elderly because the amount of knowledge they possess is a scholar’s dream come true. Watching my own Mother age graciously I have begun to notice several developmental changes that she is either refusing to accept or snaps at me like I am a 10 year old child. I completely understand what Lucas is going through with Grandpa Jake, and with the right guidance and patience they will be able to enjoy each other. The first developmental change that I feel causes major concerns for the elderly is physical change. The mind remains the same but the body is unable to keep up, is frustrating. Good health in the mental and physical realm is causes for concern because our immune system stops functioning the way it was designed to (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  The onset of cancer, bone diseases, heart failure, organ failure, and much more are health concerns that we face as we grow older. In hindsight the older we get there should be a reward of good health and a sound mind for going through the test of time. However it is the exact opposite and instead of being rewarded, the elderly are punished with bodies that break down as they grow older.

Brain and cognitive developmental change are extremely hard to watch elderly people go through, especially if you have known them before the change. Grandpa Jake is showing signs of change in his brain, by forgetting names and calling tables’ chairs. “Cognition depends on a healthy and well-functioning brain” (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). As a counselor it will sadden me when a client understands their minds are not operating at full capacity. The reality is before the mind completely goes, there are signs that they recognize. For example, knowing a familiar place and how to get there is great, but if the mind forgets in the midst of going to this familiar place the frustration may be devastating. The Manitoba study discovered that most people feel in order to live a life of satisfaction, aging has to be successful which includes “longevity, physical, and mental functioning” (Bowling, 2007).

Impact of Emotional and Psychological Well-Being

Emotionally and psychologically there is an impact in people when they are growing old. I have noticed many elderly tend to be extremely happy even grateful that they are still alive. Others tend to be extremely mean for no reason, and I am wondering are these emotions the sum of their entire lives. Emotional well-being in happy older people normally includes better friendships, better relationships with family, and happy marriages (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). In the midst of chaos if you observe an older person you will realize that they steer clear of drama and unnecessary disagreements. Psychologically they disconnect from the chaos. My mother says it best, “I left because the news will have it on at 5:00 sharp and there is no need for me to be in the middle of anyone’s mess”. The reality behind that, and keep in mind this is for anything that could possibly occur in the world we live in today, she is right to run now and ask questions later.

Protective Factor

Wisdom is a protective factor that could optimize an elderly individual’s health and resilience. Wisdom is allowing oneself to do the right thing for their mind, body, and spirit even when no one is watching. For example, wisdom is exercising your bones and muscles in order for them not to get stiff and painful. Wisdom is eating healthy. Wisdom is taking care of yourself when we are young in order for our bodies to thank us when it grows old. Wisdom s the right thing to do, but we all struggle with it daily.

References

Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Bowling, A, (2007). Aspirations for older age in the 21st century: What is successful aging? The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 64(3)263–297.

2. (A. Wit)

My clients are Miguel and Jeanette Martinez.  The challenges of raising three children and surviving a devastating tornado are behind them (Laureate Education, 2013a).  Now in their early 70’s, Miguel and Jeanette have conflicting ideas on how to spend their remaining years.  Jeanette feels she has worked hard in her life and looks forward to relaxing and watching her grandchildren grow (Laureate Education, 2013a).  Miguel, on the other hand, is not quite ready to “settle down” (Laureate Education, 2013a).  Miguel looks forward to traveling and new adventures (Laureate Education, 2013a).

Developmental factors of late adulthood

Developmental factors of late adulthood are categorically similar to other lifespan stages.  Individuals can expect physical, cognitive, and socioemotional changes as they age (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Erikson hypothesized the intimacy and generativity are primary themes in later life (Torges, Stewart, Miner-Rubino, 2005).  One challenge for this population is coming to terms with life regrets (Torges, Stewart, Miner-Rubino, 2005).  Counselors can use a life review to identify regrets of either missed opportunity or disappointment in life choices (Torges, Stewart, Miner-Rubino, 2005).  According to Torges, Stewart, Miner-Rubino (2005), an individual’s well-being is associated with their interpretation of regrets.

Protective factors for late adulthood challenges

A common goal for aging adults is to feel satisfied with a life well-lived and have the opportunity to savor the “golden years”.  Counselors working with older clients may help increase health and resilience by using self-reflection interventions.  One self-reflection technique is conduction a life review (Laureate Education, 2013b).  According to Dr. Donna Sheperis (Laureate Education, 2013b), a life review can guide clients through collecting artifacts and memories that are meaningful to the client.  The life review process could benefit both Miguel and Jeanette.  For Jeanette, the process may increase the pride she has as a mother and provide a tangible memoir she can pass on to her children and grandchildren.  For Miguel, the life review can serve as a reminder of obstacles he has overcome in his life.  Miguel might gain a new perspective in which he can feel free to explore his curiosity and respect Jeanette’s contentment with her desires.

Summary

Miguel and Jeanette Martinez have overcome many obstacles in their life.  They both hope to enjoy this period in life.  A life review may provide valuable insight into regrets.  At this point, Miguel would benefit from a new interpretation of past events.  People who come to terms with regret report high life -satisfaction and positive mood than people who do not come to terms with regret (Torges, Stewart, Miner-Rubino, 2005).

References

Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education

Laureate Education (Producer). (2013a). Late adulthood [Video file]. Retrieved from CDN Files Database. (COUN 6215/COUN 8215/HUMN 8215)

Laureate Education (Producer). (2013b). Perspectives: The golden years [Video file]. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu

Torges, C.M., Stewart, A.J., & Miner-Rubino, K. (2005).  Personality after the prime of life: men and women coming to terms with regrets.  Journal of Research in Personality, 39(1), 148-165.  Doi: 10.1016/i.irp.2004.09.005

3. (L. Waf)

Audrey Anderson now 72-years-old has presented for therapy at the request of her grandchildren following her husband Ernie’s sudden death two months ago of a heart attack. Audrey has not been eating or sleeping well nor has she been leaving her house. Audrey reports being well; stating, she misses her husband and wishes her grandchildren resided closer. As the conversation continued, Audrey reported two of her close friends from church have also passed away within the last year. She sighs and says, “Sure, I am lonely, but I know I will be with Ernie and my Holy Father soon.” (Laureate, 2013d).

Developmental Factors in Late Adulthood

Late adulthood is considered to begin around age 65. Developmental changes in late adulthood include cognitive, physical, and socioeconomic. Late adulthood is a sincerely problematic state with lots of grief and frustration.   (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Some physical changes associated with later adulthood include a decline in sensory capacity; declines in heart, kidney, lung, and muscle function; as well as memory degeneration, changes in appearance, and sensory changes. Other physical health conditions vary and are often attributed to health habits, hereditary factors, and other influences. These health conditions include cancer, dementia, heart disease, and arthritis. Cognitive changes include declines in reasoning, the speed of processing, and memory that are often associated with the primary biological changes that occur. Socioeconomic changes include changes in work status or loss of a spouse. Retirement brings about shifting roles in the home and social system.

Protective Factors for Late Adulthood Challenges

The protective factor I would use for Audrey is to encourage social connectedness by encouraging more involvement in her church. Religious involvement reduces the risk of depression in late adulthood. (George, Ellison, & Larson, 2001). I would also encourage grief counseling. “There’s a big difference between being depressed and being sad,” she says. “When we grieve, sadness overtakes us and rules our life for quite a while. However, there is movement. Eventually, we move through sadness and make meaning out of our loss.” (Kennedy, 2008). This quote speaks volumes to me about the grieving process. With proper empathy, support, guidance Audrey can efficiently work through her feelings of grief and learn to live with her loss.

References

Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

George LK, Ellison CG, Larson DB. Explaining the relationships between religious involvement and health. Psychol. Inq. 2002;13:190–200

Kennedy, A. (2008). Working through grief. Retrieved from http://ct.counseling.org/2008/01/working-through-grief/

Readings

· Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

o Chapter 15, “Gains and Losses in Late Adulthood” (pp. 556-596)

Bielak, A. A. M., Anstey, K. J., Christensen, H., & Windsor, T. D. (2012). Activity engagement is related to level, but not change in cognitive ability across adulthood. Psychology and Aging, 27(1), 219–228.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Bowling, A, (2007). Aspirations for older age in the 21st century: What is successful aging? The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 64(3)263–297.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Davis, C. S. (2008). A funeral liturgy: Death rituals as symbolic communication. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 13(5), 406–421.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Hemmingson, M. (2009). Anthropology of the memorial: Observations and reflections on American cultural rituals associated with death. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 10(3)1–13.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Lowis, M. J., Edwards, A. C., & Burton, M. (2009). Coping with retirement: Wellbeing, health, and religion. Journal of Psychology, 143(4), 427–448.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Ong, A. D., Bergeman, C. S., & Boker, S. M. (2009). Resilience comes of age: Defining features in later adulthood. Journal of Personality, 77(6), 1777–1804.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Schoulte, J. C. (2011). Bereavement among African Americans and Latino/a Americans. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 33(1), 11–20.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Wang, M., Henkens, K., & van Solinge, H. (2011). Retirement adjustment: A review of theoretical and empirical advancements. The American Psychologist, 66(3), 204–213.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Kaplan, D. (2008). End of life care for terminally ill clients. Retrieved from http://ct.counseling.org/2008/06/ct-online-ethics-update-3/

Kennedy, A. (2008). Working through grief. Retrieved from http://ct.counseling.org/2008/01/working-through-grief/

National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine. (2013). End of life issues. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/endoflifeissues.html

Rudow, H. (2012). The bereaved at greater risk of heart attack after loss. Retrieved from http://ct.counseling.org/2012/01/the-bereaved-at-greater-risk-of-heart-attack-after-loss/

Media

· Laureate Education (Producer). (2013d). Late adulthood [Video file]. Retrieved from CDN Files Database. (COUN 6215/COUN 8215/HUMN 8215)

This week, you will revisit your assigned client family for the final time in this course. Before watching this media, take time to reflect on all that you have learned about this family. Then, examine the new information given on this week’s featured family member, aged 65 or older.

Note: Please click on the following link for the transcript: Transcript (PDF).

· Laureate Education (Producer). (2013j). Perspectives: The golden years [Video file]. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 3 minutes.

This week’s presenter discusses the physical and cognitive changes experienced by older adults. The presenter offers counseling approaches and considerations for this age range.

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

The following document gives credit for Laureate-produced media in this course: Credits (PDF)

 

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